Features of physical activity with overweight and obesity

Over the past 30 years, the number of obese people worldwide has doubled. With obesity, the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases significantly increase, the risks of cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus increase, the load on the joints and the spine becomes higher. Of course, predisposition can depend on heredity and genes that regulate metabolism. But the most important causes of obesity around the world are high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle.

Important: all obese patients must follow the minimum recommendations for physical activity: at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week.

What you need to know about physical activity for obese patients and desirett:

1. Physical activity (PA) is not only sports or training, but also normal daily activity.

We recommend choosing low or moderate exercise depending on your general health, comorbid conditions, past training experience and fitness level.

Low intensity loads: household activities at home, walking slowly, exercising.

Examples of moderate-intensity activities include brisk walking, swimming, cycling, dancing, gardening, walking stairs.

2. There are two ways to understand the intensity of the selected load: by pulse rate and by the nature of breathing.

To calculate your target heart rate range, first calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR) numbers using the 220 – age formula. Then determine the percentage of the resulting figure: for low activity – 50-63% of the MHR, for moderate activity – 64-76% of the MHR.

A simple and convenient “speaking test” is also used: with low activity, shortness of breath is almost not noticeable and the person speaks as usual, with moderate exertion, breathing is rapid, but the person can speak in short full sentences.

In obesity, intensive exercise is not recommended, when a person, due to severe shortness of breath, can speak only single words, and not whole sentences.

3. In case of overweight, the emphasis is on the duration of the exercise; loads from 40 to 90 minutes are recommended, since long exercises (more than 30 minutes) lead to the use of fat as a source of energy.

4. The recommended frequency of classes is 4-5 times a week, preferably daily. You need to be active on a daily basis and in as many situations as possible: reduce working time while sitting, walk more or ride a bike, do household chores on your own without using household appliances.

Obesity warning. File photo dated 28/07/10 of an overweight man eating, as experts warned that people are plumping up at such a rate that by 2025 roughly a fifth of the human race will be obese. Issue date: Thursday March 31, 2016. Over a period of 40 years from 1975 to 2014 the number of men and women in the world classified as obese soared from 105 million to 641 million, research shows. See PA story HEALTH Obese. Photo credit should read: Dominic Lipinski/PA Wire URN:25956982

5. When choosing the type of physical activity, it is necessary to take into account the general state of health at the moment, the person’s lifestyle and the desired goals of the classes. The most recommended type of physical activity is aerobic exercise with continuous rhythmic activity (walking, cycling, housework, dancing, swimming). With obesity, you can also choose neuromotor loads aimed at reducing the risk of falls, improving balance, balance and flexibility (yoga, Pilates, tai chi, wushu). It is necessary not to forget about the benefits of strength or anaerobic loads for strengthening muscles and bone tissue, increasing strength and improving metabolism (training in the gym, exercises with weights – dumbbells, weights, bottles of water).

6. It is important to warm up at the beginning and cool down at the end of the session – they can last 5-10 minutes and consist of light stretching, simple gymnastic exercises or low-intensity physical activity (for example, walking or slow cycling).

7. Keep in mind safety when following the recommendations: use appropriate protective equipment to minimize the risk of injury during exercise, such as wearing comfortable walking shoes or a helmet when cycling. In the case of combined pathology, it is necessary to consult a doctor and, if necessary, undergo additional examinations.

In order for physical activity to be beneficial, you need to choose an activity that you like, practice at a convenient time depending on your lifestyle, consider any mobility as an opportunity to improve health, and not a waste of time.

For obese patients, it is necessary to try to be active every day – this will not only help to reduce weight, but also significantly improve health and reduce the risks of dangerous diseases.